* Illustration by Sara El-Yafi

“Lebanon is divided between the pro-West-Saudi Arabia March 14 party and the Iran-Syria-leaning March 8” … If we could get a dollar for every time some pundit simplified our problems to such an offensive vulgarization of our nation, we’d have enough money to pay off our debt and fund the extradition of all the politicians. I despise that statement because it is a dangerous statement. Dangerous because it removes the real reasons that impede this nation; dangerous because it lures the Lebanese people into believing that they are weak enough to be spoken for by the venal and degenerate division of March 14 and March 8. This division is an insult. It is a flagrant, barefaced, shameless insult, and every person who perpetuates this insult is responsible for perpetuating the failure of the Lebanese state, politicians and civilians alike.
How can a country be divided between two groups with absolutely no national policies or plans that we can debate amongst ourselves? Where are their plans that we can agree and disagree on, and therefore be divided on? The only “divided” people are the politicians and their beneficiaries over their self-serving roles. If you are neither a politician, nor a beneficiary, and yet have effectively aligned yourself as “March 14” or “March 8”, then I believe that you do not understand what governance entails, nor do you recognize the responsibilities of public service. Once you recognize what you have unlawfully been deprived of, once you understand how pseudo-political representatives have hijacked this nation from your hands by perpetuating a self-serving political system that not only deprives you from development, but actually harms you and your family, you will surely revisit your stance as a follower of either current and demand immediate answers to vital national questions. Hopefully this post here can start that process.

The reasons behind poverty and “third-worldism” are universally known to be the following four points.

1. Closed political system: Social scientists determine this to be the first culprit of state failure because a closed political system concentrates power in a narrow faction of society that ends up manipulating its power to set up political and economic institutions where the rulers enrich themselves and increase their power/wealth at the expense of society.
→ Lebanon has a closed political system because it is commanded by our own version of the caste system. Specific religions and specific people, i.e. specific families and former/current militiamen, dictate rulership, therefore closing off political participation to all those who were born in the wrong religion and in the wrong family/militia. Running for office is thus not readily available to anyone unless you hold “a standing” with one of the established men of politics who will “take you under his wing”, men who inherit their seats by a self-invented sanctioned right and pass them on to whom they choose. The political system is closed; wealth and power is thus limited and usurped and our nation fails.

2. Corruption: It is no secret that corruption kills a nation’s development. Corruption showcases a weak rule of law and a strong grip by the corrupt on governance, thereby suffocating the people and their institutions. It widens the rich-poor gap, degrades society, and retards the potential of every nation.
→ In 2013, Transparency International ranked Lebanon 127th out of 175 countries in the Corruption Perception Index. This means that if you divided the world into 3 transparent categories being Good, Fair and Bad, we are located in “Bad.” Ethiopia, Nigeria, Djibouti and Tanzania are in “Fair”, so are the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Egypt, and those are some of the poorest countries in the world. Elections are won thanks to huge political machines that buy votes and dispense patronage, then the winners design policies to deliver power in excess to themselves through corrupt manipulative transactions where they take a cut from everything, and curtail others’ ambitions if they don’t include them. The corruption in the country is not even hidden. The politicians fight over it on television, in broad daylight, and still, most people actually find it OK to take sides. If this does not revolt you, I don’t know what does.

3. Lack of equality of opportunity due to inappropriate economic establishments and self-serving political institutions: Economies that “stratify” societies fail them. This forms a feedback loop with the above two mentioned points. The “controlling rulers” structure political and economic institutions to their benefit. This is why, in such a system, the rulers will never vouch for laws that might bother them, such as economic equal opportunities or opening the market to competitors when they are benefiting from monopolies they have established.
→ In Lebanon, take for instance the example of the “exclusive agencies” (وكالات حصرية) that reserve the rights of ownership of a brand to one particular seller, never to be changed. The traders are few and freely engage in price fixing that serves them (think of the car dealerships) and saturate the important markets. Or take the very exclusive deals that the government strikes with certain companies, such as the telecommunication companies or the airline company MEA. They turn all governmental ventures into monopolies or duopolies that persist for as long as the beneficiaries are in power, limiting equality of opportunity and therefore, annihilating growth for the nation and its people. The prices remain high, competition is forbidden and growth is limited to a few. Result? Third-world nation. In addition, we are left with a shortage of jobs in the country and dismal salaries because there is no flux in the market, which leads to a terrible hemorrhage of talent, yet our cost of living remains exorbitant. According to the 2013 Cost of Living Index, we are the 38th most expensive country to live in in the world, only preceded by first world countries except for Venezuela, Nigeria, Uruguay and Azerbaijan; this means that save for those four countries, we are the most expensive third world nation in the entire world, yet on average, our salaries remain those of the deep third world.

4. Absence of rule of law: This shortcoming is very closely linked to the points of corruption and inappropriate institutions. But I am singling it out.
→ The law in Lebanon is relative, meaning it is corrupt. You can override the law if you belong to the powerful, yet the law eats your eyes if you are not. Furthermore, the system begs to be breached, for those who follow the law end up losing; bribes and participation in nepotism become a must for survival.

Now take a look at March 14 and March 8, the only two available political trends today that so acceptably “divide” this nation, and tell me, what is their agenda to tackle all the above-mentioned problems? What is their manifesto for nation building? Where is their proposed plan for electricity, telephones, sewage system, public health, road network linking our cities, and law and order? Where is their budget plan? What are their funding priorities? What are the judiciary regulatory measures they wish to undertake? What about the right of women to pass on the nationality to their children? What is their angle on environmentalism and climate change and what do they wish to do about it in Lebanon? Any plan to create green environmental laws that encourage the use of renewable energy sources and reduce pollution? Do they have plans to give access to potable water in households? How do they plan on exploiting our new natural gas bounty? Will they pair it with the highest environmental extraction rules and a national renewable energy portfolio that makes sure we bridge our way to a cleaner energy future? Do they have their own version of a red line that makes us go to war? Is there a contingency plan regarding terrorism? Will they work on civil marriage? Gay rights? What are their economic policies? How will they create jobs? Any plans to remedy in joint action with fellow neighboring states to the humanitarian disaster that is the dismal living conditions in the Palestinian camps? What about the living conditions of the most remote areas of Lebanon where electricity has yet to be introduced? Any urban planning reforms to protect our trees and encourage the creation of parks? Any tax reform? Any plans to raise minimum wages? What about the rights of immigrant workers? Any plan to increase funding to our national laboratories and research clinics to start supporting our scientists? What about technology ventures? How will they work on having Lebanese people be granted visas more easily to visit foreign nations? If elected, what do they promise to deliver within the term of their public service concerning all the above-mentioned questions? Why and why not?

Do you think it’s normal that we know nothing of all this? How can you decide whether they represent you or not if you cannot answer these vital governance questions about their stances? Have you decided to support them based solely on your feelings towards Syria and Assad? Based on your feelings towards Israel and the US? Those are your benchmarks? The only standpoint we know that concerns March 14 and March 8 is their stance on foreign countries, but that does not even qualify for foreign policy, because foreign policy is about safeguarding national interests within the setting of international relations. If our national interests were safeguarded, we would not have explosions killing our civilian population. If our national interests were safeguarded, we would not be red flagged for “visa acquirement” by most countries in the world.

I reject this division because it is not legitimate. I reject this division because it fails our nation. This “divided Lebanon” is the byproduct of corruption and self-serving politics that disembowel our nation from its first-world potential, division standards that do not speak for me, nor for anyone who views their citizenship with integrity.

Listen to me. Listen to me now if that is the last time you ever do.

Lebanon is a FAILED STATE, by all standards, measures and attributes, and it is fully, effusively and entirely due to the fact that we allow rulership to be in the hands of gray-faced corrupt men who harbor a blasphemous sense for division, but absolutely no sense for public service. It is a contemporary social science fact that first-world nations like Great Britain, the United States, France and Japan all became rich because their citizens toppled the elites who manipulated power and controlled wealth, and their people effectively redistributed political rights across a broader segment of society, a society where the majority of people took advantage of economic opportunities available to all, and where the government stood accountable and responsive to its citizens. There is no secret to how a country becomes developed, it is entirely and exclusively due to the development of egalitarian, transparent politics and economics by the people, for the people.

This is not a call for revolution. This is a call for awakening; awakening through knowledge. Our development rests in our own ability to demand egalitarian political and economic institutions, where opportunity is available to all, where team players are rewarded for leveling playing fields and increasing national wealth and those who dare play the sectarian, exclusive card carry the burden of their own extractive attitude. Know that the men in power will never create those institutions for us today. They will perpetuate the status quo, as will their children and their children’s children, until they are effectively denounced, and the demands and actions of those of us who are vying for more honest institutions are mobilized.

But we need to acknowledge this. Such actions can only result in significant change when an extensive section of society rallies and heavily lobbies for prompt political change, and mobilizes not for sectarian reasons, nor to dominate the self-serving political and economic systems, but to turn these self-serving institutions into more egalitarian ones. Whether this all-encompassing national spirit and this contingent course of action can empower our nation and result in long-lasting political reform will depend fully on us and what we decide to create together.

Who agrees?


  • Cera Barr says:

    Thank you!!!! Problem is when you try to explain this people still think ur taking a side aaaaaghhhhh!!!!!!!

  • Sa'ed Adel Atshan says:

    Such excellent piece (and a compelling cartoon)! You are brilliant Sara!

  • Ghias El Yafi says:

    Say no more!

  • Mosbah Jalloul says:

    100% agree. Very well said.

  • Why we always have to blame the political system??? politicians are nurtured from the stupidity of people, people are nothing but political zombies… furthermore awaken who??? the youth??? cant you see what they actually care of doing in universities?? the only thing they care about is political elections within their campus!! Universities should ban all political elections in their campus… Conclusion the only way to cure :Lebanon is the implementation of Federalism….

  • Nasser El Hout says:

    Nice piece of work. The questions is : what's next?? So much damage has been done to the point to the majority it seems to be irreversible.

  • well written sara !! very nice read !!

  • Molly Stacey says:

    Brilliant as always, Sara.

  • George de Chadarevian says:

    Brilliantly put by Sara El-Yafi.

    The article ends with “…actions can only result in significant change when an extensive section of society rallies and heavily lobbies for prompt political change, and mobilizes not for sectarian reasons, nor to dominate the self-serving political and economic systems, but to turn these self-serving institutions into more egalitarian ones.”
    Article has also cited countries where this change was brought on by the people, but one question remains:
    Isn’t the ability to see things from this perspective mainly cultural? Isn’t it in people’s cultural traits to put the group’s interests ahead of national interests? To put narrow shortsighted interests ahead of wider longer term interests? Or is it just a matter of being used to being exploited by one’s “leaders” while forgetting that change is possible?

  • Zeina Haddad Faraj says:

    Brilliant article by Sara El-Yafi

  • Mireille Kamel says:

    Thank you

  • Ghada El Yafi says:

    Tu as raison en un certain sens. Mais tu oublies l’essentiel: notre passé récent et un peu moins récent montre bien que le Liban a été créé pour servir de carte à jouer en cas de besoin par les grandes puissances. Est-il concevable que la laïcité dont jouit la France depuis 1907 ne pouvait pas l’être au Liban où soi-disant il fallait protéger les chrétiens? De quoi souffraient donc ces chrétiens dont ne souffraient pas leur compatriotes non chrétiens? C’est plus simple pour eux de faire jouer la carte confessionnelle quand c’est nécessaire. Un pays laïc avec une société non pas homogène mais cohérente n’aurait pas pu servir leurs aspirations. Quant à notre démocratie, parlons-en! Des élections où sont élues exclusivement les listes qui parviennent à amasser assez d’argent pour “acheter et vendre” afin ensuite de récupérer… Un parlement qui refuse de réformer une loi électorale obsolète. Comment veux-tu que ces”élus” non réellement élus mais désignés par un parrain le plus souvent NON libanais s’occupent du bien public? Inutile de croire qu’il y a des élections. Il y a des NOMINATIONS un point c’est tout. Crois bien que ce que tu as représenté, beaucoup le pensent. Seulement comment faire face à la corruption? à la fraude? à la pauvreté?à l’ignorance, au sectarisme, au “MOI D’ABORD” et après moi le déluge?

  • Julien Cordahi says:

    I might be the first one to make a “negative” comment.

    Your article is one of the best brief-diagnostics of the “Lebanese question” I have read so far and I seriously doubt something more accurate and more on-point could be written in fewer words.

    Yet it remains a diagnostic.
    And we are the champions of diagnostics. We do it so well that we could understand almost any conflict on earth and analyze it with bullseye precision.

    You end your article by asking the wrong question.
    Instead of asking “who agrees?”, because any Lebanese with a minimum of conscience, logic and patriotism would agree with you, the question to be asked is “what are you prepared to do?”.

    But in that case, you don’t end your article with this question. You start by asking it, and then answering it.

    That’s what is missing in your article. Talking about how to tackle the questions you have asked, i.e. all the various essential questions of “true” politics that seem to be inexistent in Lebanon, or at least in the non-virtual Lebanon, and how to implement the right solutions. That’s what missing from any debate. We need to step forward and talk about the solutions and how to practically implement them.

    So enough diagnostics and let’s start talking about how we can change things. The steps that we could and should be taking to implement change.

    I trust you have a lot of brilliant ideas to serve and start the “right” brainstorming.

    So what are you prepared to do?

  • Abdallah Jabbour says:

    While I agree with 99% of what you said and can find you many people who also do, I think we’re all using a medium and a language that’s not conducive to change. None of our corrupt politicians has reached power by mobilizing people using rational ideas over the Internet: they instead do it in person, appeal to emotions, have a monopoly over traditional media, and are very well organized (in addition to being flush with cash). With respect to these four points: 1) I have yet to see an online activist meet with regular people in her neighborhood to communicate progressive ideas 2) Many use facts instead of telling moving stories that appeal to emotions 3) Very very few (if at all) have been able to break into traditional media to present their ideas 4) Hundreds of people are calling for change on Facebook, but they have yet to designate a leader who would help organize and execute a well defined strategy to change the status quo.

  • Mazen El Cheikh says:

    Well said Sara El-Yafi. I believe the main reason for the up-rise of just these 2 divisions without any real competitors is their dominance over the media. The majority of journalists in Lebanon have forgotten the main purpose of journalism and are serving as advertisers to the ideas of these 2 divisions instead of taking care of people’s problems and the countries situation. It’s a disgrace for us Lebanese to see this level of stupidity to say the least in our political speech broadcasted on a daily basis over the air waves. People are being fed what to believe and how to think by uneducated people; media are calling specialists/journalists/politicians. Tell me where can you find now a politician such as Reymond Edde for example? We are in need of a new revolution leaded by educated, honest and patriotic people such as Ziad Baroud. These people have an obligation toward their country and community to act for change before it’s too late.

  • I disagree that it is a minority thinking. It is a majority, but sadly silent. One day, please God – it will it will find it's voice and it will be loud and clear which will lead to the minority present operators to end in jail where they belong. In my life time? I am not so sure.

  • Gail Antabi says:

    U r incredible love the sketch. Pls email me the essay

  • Maroun Mourad says:

    Well articulated. Keep’em coming

  • Judy Barrage says:

    If citizens remember all this during election time instead, demanding more of our elected leaders then maybe there is a way out!

  • Ameen Abu Yehya says:

    ..تحياتي سارة .. رح استخدم الصورة على صفحة حزب الحوار الوطني مع اسمك وتوقيعك اكيد

  • Ibrahim AlHusseini says:

    Your frustration is both warranted and shared by many of your fellow citizens. Framing the points as you do will help pull your readers out of cynicism and resignation, resulting in them not just agree with you, but standing by you for the egalitarian system you passionately and rightfully stand for.

  • George Rehayem says:

    true, the majority are driven by poverty and religion.. but that segment hardly has any power or influence in hand. The educated/well-off are normally the role models of society

  • Aly Khanafer says:

    Brilliant sara the article and the design are 100% reflecting our situation in lebanon . No one could say it in a better way keep it up

  • Zeid Tawil says:

    and i am sharing this dear Sara 🙂

  • Zeid Tawil says:

    yup that’s it in a nutshell

  • T. R. says:

    This is your calling (Evocative political commentary through cartoons) before your greater calling in a few years (Provocative but pragmatic political leadership through your example).
    Well done and keep it up.

  • Karim Traboulsi says:

    nice cartoon!

  • Maya Karam Abourialy says:

    Strongly agree!

  • Sarah Beaini Rafeh says:

    :’-( :’-( :’-( 🙁 🙁

  • Ste Pha Nie says:

    A+ for the drawing!

  • Jamil Armanazi says:

    Brilliantly written, as always. Shared

  • Omar Lababedi says:

    Brilliant writing. You always manage to articulate the truth so well. Keep up the good work and let’s hope this one will stand as a turning point in Lebanon and the rest of the dilapidated sad region.

  • Hassane 'Sean' Mahfouz says:

    agree…. the only problem is… that is minority thinking… the majority of people are driven by poverty and religion… I can write an essay about how poverty and religion drive them to do irrational things… but I am sure u know them already.

    • Hisham Abukalam says:

      I disagree that it is a minority thinking. It is a majority, but sadly silent. One day, please God – it will it will find its voice and it will be loud and clear which will lead to the minority present operators to end in jail where they belong. In my life time? I am not so sure.

    • George Rehayem says:

      true, the majority are driven by poverty and religion.. but that segment hardly has any power or influence in hand. The educated/well-off are normally the role models of society

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